New Research by Professor Tanya Kaefer at Lakehead University in Canada, highlights the important factors in helping children read. Research shows that what children know about written words as they begin school predicts their early literacy development and long term academic success. How young children develop this knowledge about words has been a key area of developmental literacy research. Readers must incorporate three key elements into their knowledge of a written word: orthography (spelling), phonology (pronunciation), and semantics (meaning). Knowledge of each element is insufficient for reading; all of these elements must be fully integrated into one lexical representation such that activation of one element leads to the successful retrieval of the other elements from memory. For reading success, children must know the spelling of the word “cat,” the pronunciation /kæt/, and the meaning (furry creature), but, just as importantly, those three elements must be closely integrated so that when children see the word “cat” the pronunciation and meaning are automatically associated with it. See Intergrating Orthographic and Phonolological Knowledge in Early Readers: Implicit and Explicit Knowledge (https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2016/6036129/).